Why Is Krishna Blue In Colour?

Lord Krishna

In the famous 1978 movie Satyam Shivam Sundaram, Lata Mangeshkar sings, “Yashomati maiyaa se bole Nandlaala, Radha kyun gori mai kyun kaala?” (“Little Krishna asks mother Yashoda, why is Radha fair and I am black?”). But wait… isn’t Lord Krishna blue? In paintings, in statues, in movies – everywhere, Lord Krishna can be seen with his two identifying characteristics: the golden flute in his hand, and his blue-colored skin. But why is Krishna blue?

Lord Krishna with flute

Painting of Lord Krishna with his flute in hand showing his blue skin

Lord Vishnu’s Connection

Before we go into the reason as to why is Krishna blue, let’s see who Krishna is. Lord Krishna is one of the most important and revered deities in Hinduism. He is the eighth incarnation (avatar) of Lord Vishnu, who is one of the principal gods in Hinduism and is part of the holy triad of Hinduism (Trimutri) along with Brahma and Shiva.

As a part of the Trimurti, Vishnu is considered to be the preserver. He represents the fundamental force (guna) of Sattva, which is the quality of goodness, positivity, calm, and balance.

Lord Vishnu

Lord Vishnu

As can be seen, even Lord Vishnu has blue-colored skin. The blue color of Krishna’s skin is invariably linked to Vishnu’s blue color! But why is Lord Vishnu, for that matter, blue-skinned? And why is Krishna blue because of Vishnu? The answer is complicated, mired in mythology and philosophy, but very interesting, so read on.

Hinduism is a very philosophical and sublime religion and heavily relies on metaphors in its tales. Sanatana Dharma, which represents the universal duties that every person needs to carry out, propagates its teachings through metaphorical representations of material things and events.

On the same lines, the blue color of Lord Vishnu’s skin is considered to be a metaphor. Lord Vishnu, as the “protector” of the universe, is omnipresent. Vishnu, being a part of the holy Trimurti, is a form of the Supreme Being, and thus, he is formless. The color blue is associated with infiniteness and homelessness.

In the words of the great teacher Swami Vivekananda,

“The God of Infinite Love and the object of Love sublime and infinite are painted blue. Krishna is painted blue…It is a natural law that anything sublime and infinite is associated with blue colour. Take a handful of water, it is absolutely colourless. But look at the deep wide ocean; it is as blue as anything. Examine the space near you; it is colourless. But look at the infinite expanse of the sky; it is blue.”

Sea and sky

The sky and the sea are vast and infinite… and that is why they are blue.

The blue color is also a reference between the link between Lord Vishnu and Lord Indra (the Vedic god of thunder and rain). In Rig Veda 7.99, Vishnu and Indra have been treated as one and equivalent. In other Rig Veda verses, Vishnu and Indra have been established as close friends. In Gita Mahatmya Chapter 1, Lord Shiva says that Vishnu’s skin

“…is the colour of a dark rain cloud.

There is another reason Vishnu is bluish in color. Vishnu’s original abode is the celestial realm of Vaikuntha. The Bhagavata Purana, in verse 2.9.11, says that “the inhabitants of the Vaikuṇṭha planets are described as having a glowing sky-bluish complexion.”

In verse 2.9.11, it means that

“…all these combined together appear just like the sky decorated with both clouds and lightning”.

why is krishna blue

A Vision of Vishnu (Vaikuntha Darshana)

For this reason, all the incarnations (avatars) of Vishnu are said to inherit the blue skin to represent the vastness of their knowledge and power. For this reason, the avatars of Vishnu, like Krishna and Rama, have blue colored hide.

Avatars of Vishnu

The different avatars of Vishnu being portrayed as blue-skinned (From top left corner: Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Vamana, Parasurama, Rama, Krishna, and Kalki)

However, there is much confusion about this, as well. For example, Balarama (the ninth avatar and Krishna’s elder brother) is described in various texts as being extremely fair-skinned.

‘In Garga Samhita verse 8.13.6 refers to him as “Sveta-Varno” (fair-skinned), and in Sri Balabhadra-stava-raja verse 6, he is referred to as “gauraya” (fair-skinned). However, there have been paintings where Balarama has been portrayed as having blue-colored skin like Krishna.

Lord Balarama

Paintings of Lord Balarama showing him as fair-skinned and blue-skinned

Another such controversial case is Lord Narasimha, the fourth avatar of Vishnu. Having a lion’s head and a human body, Narasimha is usually portrayed with yellowish skin; however, there have been rare instances of him being portrayed with blue skin as well.

Lord Narasimha

Lord Narasimha portrayed as yellow-skinned and blue-skinned

Now coming specifically to why is Krishna blue, the connection with Vishnu is considered to be the reason for his blue skin. There is definite textual evidence of Krishna’s blue-colored skin. In Bhagavata Purana verse 3.28.13, Krishna’s appearance is compared to a “nilotpala-dala,” which refers to a blue petaled lotus.

There is also textual evidence of Krishna’s infinite consciousness. In Bhagavad Gita verse 10.20, Krishna himself declares to Arjuna:

“O arjuna, i am the ultimate consciousness situated within the heart of all living entities and I am the beginning, the middle and the end aswell of all living entities.”

There are several other verses in the Bhagavad Gita which showcases the infinite nature of Krishna’s power and consciousness. The blue color is a representation of the depth of the conscious mind of Krishna. This may be another answer for: why is Krishna blue?

Other Explanations

Of course, as with any religious question that requires a fair deal of interpretation of the scriptures and use of imagination, there have been numerous explanations and theories trying to justify the blue color of Krishna’s skin.

The most famous of these alternative explanations is related to Krishna’s aura. The “Aura” explanation was given by the famous religious author Sadhguru Jaggi Vasudev. Answering the question “Why is Krishna blue?”, he said that the blue colour denotes a sign of all-inclusiveness. Often, blue denotes something that is as vast as the eyes can see, and even beyond, like the ocean and the sky.

Aura refers to the mythical concept of a visible energy field around a person’s body. Scientific laws say that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; it can merely be transformed from one form to another. However, when power is unable to or refuses to manifest itself into a physical form, it is termed as “aura.” While science is yet to find any conclusive proof of the existence of aura, it is an essential part of Hindu philosophy.

This explanation says that while Krishna indeed appeared blue to people’s eyes, it does not necessarily mean that he was blue-skinned. While his skin may have been of a different color, the blue aura that his body emitted overshadowed it. Therefore, people’s eyes could only perceive that color, giving Krishna a blue appearance and answers why is Krishna blue.

The blue color of his skin was a representation of his character. Krishna has been described as being extremely attractive in his form. In Brahma Samhita, Lord Brahma says that he worships Krishna.

This level of attractiveness is attributed to the pure blue aura emitted by Krishna. He charmed even his most sworn enemies with his sight. The demoness Putana, who was sent to assassinate an infant Krishna, was taken aback by his view. In many iterations of the story, Pootana became enchanted by Krishna and asked him to liberate her from her sins, which Krishna did by sucking the life out of her mortal body.

In the color wheel, blue is considered the “coolest” color. According to psychologists, blue has a calming and soothing effect on people. Therefore, the blue color of Krishna denotes his composed and serene character.

The word Krishna in itself means “black,” “dark,” or “dark blue” in Sanskrit. Another name of Krishna is Shyama, which also means “black,” “dark,” or “blue.” In Chandogaya Upanishad verse 6.5, it is said that Rig Veda is akin to the white light of the Sun, and Sama Veda is the blackish-blue (dark) light of the sun. In Bhagavad Gita verse 10.22, Krishna declares that “Of the Vedas, I am the Sama Veda” (Vedanam Sama-Veda ‘smi). This can be seen as a direct admission by Krishna himself as to why is Krishna blue.

Where Is the Controversy?

Answering “Why is Krishna blue?” has a little problem: it is not concrete that Krishna is blue in color. Little in Hinduism has absolute coherence, and the same is true for Krishna’s complexion as well. The paintings and statues of Krishna depict him in varying shades of blue and white, with no semblance of conformity to any one single complexion. Moreover, there are also paintings and models which variedly portray Krishna as fair-skinned and completely white.

Krishna Complexion

The different portrayals of Krishna’s complexion through paintings and statues

However, it is essential to note that Hinduism is a very fluid religion, and very little in it has any absoluteness. The same seems to hold for Krishna’s complexion as well. There are myriads of interpretations and artistic imaginations applied over the centuries, and as a result, we have thousands of portraits and models of different versions of Krishna. There are no verses nor stories which answer the question: “Why is Krishna blue?”. It is a matter of debate if his complexion even the actual color of his skin or just a visual illusion caused by his supreme aura.

So, we can only read more and more about this topic, because one can never learn enough about religion as vast as Hinduism. Now that we know why is Krishna blue, we can move on to the next god; after all, we have a pool of 33 million gods!

Read More

Still curious and want to read more? Well, here are some resources for further reading…

  1. Struggles of Seeking Recognition in the Land of a Million Gods
  2. Gita Mahatmya: Chapter One
  3. Srimad Bhagavat (Bhagavat Purana)
  4. The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda by Swami Vivekananda

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Sushruta Bhattacharjee