Black holes and time warps, this might deceive you into thinking of it as an empty or void space. But it has mass, and it is the densest object in the universe. It has extremely high gravity due to which it pulls everything towards itself, even light. But we can’t see it. Then how do we know that it exists? Are we only imagining things?
Black holes are surrounded by lights almost like a ring called the event horizon. These lights are emitted by the objects entering the black hole because of their acceleration, and once we cross the event horizon, we can never escape. It is where the gravity is strong enough to drag the light towards itself and prevent from escaping. This prevention of light from escaping is the reason we can’t see the black hole. But black holes are light years away, and the event horizon is not very large as compared to the black hole. Hence they can’t even be seen with the help of a telescope.
Black holes and time warps can be detected by its effects on its nearby objects. Just like the sun has planets revolving around it even black holes have such planets that revolve around them. So, whenever we see these planets around a space we can understand that there is a black hole.
Black Holes And Time Warps
Gravity slows down the time. Black holes have the strongest region of gravity and more the gravity, slower is the time. So the time near the black hole or inside the black hole is way slower than time on earth.
Black holes and time warps are formed by the explosion of massive stars or when a star dies. But how does a star die? When iron is produced inside a star, it stops producing any more energy, that is like the sun, instead of giving out energy starts taking away all it has given till now. Hence the outward pressure reduces, and the star implodes.
Due to this, the particles inside get extremely close to each other, as a result of which the pressure between the particles as in the electrons and protons increases and it finally explodes. This explosion of massive stars is usually termed as Supernova, and the black holes are one of its by-products.
That is why only massively large stars can make a black hole. A small star might make a white dwarf, i.e., a milky way galaxy or if it an average in size it may form a neutron star. When electrons and protons repel each other and finally explodes neutrons are left alone and then the formation a neutron star takes place.
But how dense are these black holes? We know that density is equal to mass upon volume and to find this volume we need the radius Rs also called Schwarzschild radius. Rs is equal to two times the gravitational constant upon the square of the speed of light. But density can also be expressed regarding energy using Einstein’s formula E=MC^2 where E is the energy, M is the mass, C is the speed of light.
We call the black hole a hole for a reason. According to the concept of general relativity, Gravitation is not a force. It is mass that bends the space in a way that the objects move towards the center of the planet. But in case of this bend is so deep that it is almost a hole. That why we generally refer to it as a hole not object.
Black holes are three dimensional whereas event horizons are two dimensional. But to know what is happening inside the black hole we need to observe the effects on the event horizon, and this is where the Holographic Principle steps in, where a 2D object is used to understand the features of a 3D object. But what exactly is going on inside the black hole is yet to be discovered.